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Do you need to do modal analysis without controlling the input?

You might wonder what Operational Modal Analysis, OMA, is and how it differs from the traditional Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) that has been around for the past few decades. Operational Modal Analysis is also called output-only modal analysis, ambient response analysis, ambient modal analysis, in-operation modal analysis, and natural input modal analysis.

No matter the name, the idea is the same: Conduct a modal analysis without knowing and/or controlling the input excitation. This modal technology is capable of estimating the same modal parameters as the traditional known techniques. The modal parameters are the mode shape, the natural frequency and the damping ratio. Some thinks that Operational Modal Analysis just is another name for Operating Deflection Shapes, ODS. This is not the case. Operational Modal Analysis separates noise and inputs from the outputs and returns the unbiased modal information only.

  • Input Multiple Output Modal Technology.
    The Operational Modal Analysis are Multiple Input Multiple Output, MIMO, techniques. This means that the techniques are capable of estimating closely space modes and even repeated modes with a high degree of accuracy. Traditional modal anlysis techniques are typically Single Input Multiple Output, SIMO, or Multiple Input Single Output, MISO, or in rare cases even Single Input Single Output, SISO. Such testing procedures will not be able to find repeated poles due to the lack of mode separation.
  • Easier Laboratory Modal Testing.
    There is no need for vibration shaker or impact hammer anymore. If you are in your lab doing modal testing in a test rig on some structural component, just do some random tapping on the structure while you are measuring the vibration response in multiple locations. The tapping must be random in time but also spatially. The excitation produced in this way will be a good approximation of a multivariate white noise stochastic process.
  • Winning Technology in In-situ Modal Testing.
    The Operational Modal Analysis are Multiple Input Multiple Output, MIMO, techniques. This means that the techniques are capable of estimating closely space modes and even repeated modes with a high degree of accuracy. Traditional modal anlysis techniques are typically Single Input Multiple Output, SIMO, or Multiple Input Single Output, MISO, or in rare cases even Single Input Single Output, SISO. Such testing procedures will not be able to find repeated poles due to the lack of mode separation.
  • Modal Analysis in the Presence of Harmonic Excitation.
    The presence of rotating components “harmonics” in the data has for years been a nightmare to deal with. In many applications where rotating machinery is present in the structure being tested, it has been necessary to switch of the operation of the rotaing machinery while doing the modal analysis, or it has been necessary to rely on the use of Operating Deflection Shapes (ODS) analysis. However, ARTeMIS Modal is born with the ability to handle “harmonics” from rotating components, such as motors, pumps, propellers, wind turbines and generators.

Please have a look at the Technical Review for a technical introduction OMA and its similarities and differences to EMA.

Do you need to do modal analysis without controlling the input?

You might wonder what Operational Modal Analysis, OMA, is and how it differs from the traditional Experimental Modal Analysis (EMA) that has been around for the past few decades. Operational Modal Analysis is also called output-only modal analysis, ambient response analysis, ambient modal analysis, in-operation modal analysis, and natural input modal analysis. No matter the name, the idea is the same: Conduct a modal analysis without knowing and/or controlling the input excitation. This modal technology is capable of estimating the same modal parameters as the traditional known techniques. The modal parameters are the mode shape, the natural frequency and the damping ratio. Some thinks that Operational Modal Analysis just is another name for Operating Deflection Shapes, ODS. This is not the case. Operational Modal Analysis separates noise and inputs from the outputs and returns the unbiased modal information only.

There are a number of benefits in using the Operational Modal Analysis compared to the more traditional techniques:

  • Input Multiple Output Modal Technology.
    The Operational Modal Analysis are Multiple Input Multiple Output, MIMO, techniques. This means that the techniques are capable of estimating closely space modes and even repeated modes with a high degree of accuracy. Traditional modal anlysis techniques are typically Single Input Multiple Output, SIMO, or Multiple Input Single Output, MISO, or in rare cases even Single Input Single Output, SISO. Such testing procedures will not be able to find repeated poles due to the lack of mode separation.
  • Easier Laboratory Modal Testing.
    There is no need for vibration shaker or impact hammer anymore. If you are in your lab doing modal testing in a test rig on some structural component, just do some random tapping on the structure while you are measuring the vibration response in multiple locations. The tapping must be random in time but also spatially. The excitation produced in this way will be a good approximation of a multivariate white noise stochastic process.
  • Winning Technology in In-situ Modal Testing.
    The Operational Modal Analysis are Multiple Input Multiple Output, MIMO, techniques. This means that the techniques are capable of estimating closely space modes and even repeated modes with a high degree of accuracy. Traditional modal anlysis techniques are typically Single Input Multiple Output, SIMO, or Multiple Input Single Output, MISO, or in rare cases even Single Input Single Output, SISO. Such testing procedures will not be able to find repeated poles due to the lack of mode separation.
  • Modal Analysis in the Presence of Harmonic Excitation.
    The presence of rotating components “harmonics” in the data has for years been a nightmare to deal with. In many applications where rotating machinery is present in the structure being tested, it has been necessary to switch of the operation of the rotaing machinery while doing the modal analysis, or it has been necessary to rely on the use of Operating Deflection Shapes (ODS) analysis. However, ARTeMIS Modal is born with the ability to handle “harmonics” from rotating components, such as motors, pumps, propellers, wind turbines and generators.

Please have a look at the Technical Review for a technical introduction OMA and its similarities and differences to EMA.

ARTeMIS Modal – Cutting edge Operational Modal Analysis software since 1999

ARTeMIS Modal is a powerful and versatile tool for Operational Modal Analysis. Its ability to produce validated modal parameter estimates, based on parallel analysis of up to eight different analysis techniques, makes it the natural choice in mission critical applications.

From the patented Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition (EFDD) techniques to the unique Crystal Clear Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) techniques, ARTeMIS Modal enable engineers to obtain validated estimates the mode shapes, natural frequencies and damping ratios, directly from the raw measured time series data of structures under natural conditions.

The software is designed for the vast number of cases where it is preferred not to control or measure the loading.The software is used by engineers all over the world for modal analysis of all kinds of structures:

  • Operating machinery or other mechanical structures with or without rotating components.
  • Large civil engineering structures like bridges, dams and buildings subjected to ambient loads.
  • Structures with rotating components such as wind turbines, stream turbines, engines and gas compressors.
  • Maritime structures like ships and offshore structures.
  • Automotive, trucks, trains and vehicles and sub parts systems.
  • Aerospace structures such as launch vehicles and aircrafts.
  • The software is an open, and user friendly platform for modal testing, modal analysis and modal problem solving. If you can measure the vibrations, ARTeMIS Modal can give you the modes in terms of mode shape, natural frequency and damping ratio.

Available Operational Modal Analysis Estimators – Frequency Domain

ARTeMIS Modal includes up to three frequency domain modal analysis techniques derived from the patented Frequency Domain Decomposition technology utilizing the singular value decomposition of the estimated spectral densities of the measured response. The techniques available are:

  • Frequency Domain Decomposition – FDD.
  • Enhanced Frequency Domain Decomposition – EFDD.
  • Curve-fit Frequency Domain Decomposition – CFDD.

All three techniques are based on peak-picking in the frequency domain using either automatic picking or manual picking using the mouse. Once picked, the mode shapes are ready for immediate animation. The techniques are all specially designed to account for the presence of deterministic signals (harmonics) in case of rotating structural parts or other sinusoidal excitation.

Benefits

  • Intuitive modal parameter estimation based on peak-picking in frequency domain.
  • Immediate results even in case of hundreds of measurement channels and modes.
  • Extremely robust being based on the Singular Value Decomposition of spectral densities.
  • Handles single or multiple Test Setups in exact same way.
  • Through the use of the powerful harmonics detection modal parameters can be extracted in the presence of harmonic components from e.g. rotating machinery.
  • Peak-picking can be made manually or automatic.
  • EFDD and CFDD methods provide estimates of damping ratios as well as improved estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes.

 

Operational Modal Analysis 1

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Available Operational Modal Analysis Estimators – Time Domain

ARTeMIS Modal Pro includes up to five time domain modal analysis techniques. They are all of the data driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) type and all implementing the powerful Crystal Clear SSI feature. This feature result in extremely clear stabilization diagrams with un-seen accuracy of the physical parameters and nearly no noise modes.  The techniques available are:

  • Extended Unweighted Principal Component – SSI-UPCX.
  • Unweighted Principal Component – SSI-UPC.
  • Principal Component – SSI-PC.
  • Canonical Variate Analysis – SSI-CVA.
  • Unweighted Principal Component Merged Test Setups – SSI-UPC-Merged.

 

These techniques estimate the modal parameters directly from the raw measured time series. The SSI techniques incorporate effective ways of dealing with noise. As a result, the modal parameter estimations are the most accurate commercially available today. The SSI techniques can work with closely space and repeated modes with light or heavy damping. Since they are working in time domain there are no leakage bias or lack of frequency resolution, see below. As a result, the modal parameter estimates are asymptotically unbiased. Further, as the SSI techniques are low model order estimators, the statistical errors of the modal parameter estimates are extremely small.

Features

  • Modal parameter estimation based on estimation of state space models in time domain.
  • State space model estimation can be done on even large channel counts through the use of Projection Channels.
  • Projection Channels can be found manually, semi-automatic or fully automatic.
  • Very fast estimation of even hundreds of models of increasing dimension.
  • Very limited user interaction required. Can be fully automated. By default, the techniques always start with an fully automatic estimation of the global modes.
  • Unbiased modal parameter estimation using standard least-squares or the Crystal Clear SSI® solver.
  • Estimation of uncertainties of extracted modal parameters (SSI-UPCX).
  • Handles single or multiple Test Setups.
  • Modal parameters can be extracted in the presence of deterministic (harmonic) signals from e.g. rotating machinery.
  • Extraction of global mode estimates can be made manually or automatic.
  • Estimated state space models can be validated against data in frequency domain. Both spectral response and prediction errors can be validated.
  • Estimated state space models as well as the entire stabilization diagram can be exported in ASCII file format for use outside ARTeMIS Modal.
  • All SSI methods are available in the ARTeMIS Modal Pro version.

Benefits

  • Unbiased estimation – No systematic estimation errors. No leakage – The SSI techniques work in time domain and are data-driven methods. Since the model estimation is not relying on any Fourier transformations to frequency domain no leakage is introduced. Leakage is always introduced when applying the Fourier transformation and assuming periodicity. Leakage always results in an unpredictable overestimation of the damping. No problems with deterministic signals (harmonics) – Since the modal parameters are extracted directly by fitting parameters to the raw measured time histories, the presence of deterministic signals, such as harmonics introduced by rotating machinery, does not create problems. Harmonics are just estimated as very lightly damped modes. This is in contrast to frequency domain methods relying on the estimation of half power spectral densities that all assume that the excitation is broad-banded (white noise). Using these methods in presence of deterministic signals introduce bias in the modal parameter estimation.
  • Less random errors. Low-order model estimator – SSI algorithms are born linear least-squares fitting techniques fitting state space systems with correct noise modeling. This leads to the use of much smaller model orders than other commercially available high order model estimators. These estimators are often used to approximate a non-linear least squares problem with a linear least-squares fitting problem. This is an often seen approximation when fitting e.g. polynomial matrix fractions. In order for this approximation to work, a high-order polynomial order is needed. Since this leads to the use of many parameters compared to a low-order technique, the uncertainties of the high-order parameter estimates becomes larger. More parameters are fitted with the same amount of data available, meaning less independent information per estimated parameter. All modal parameters are fitted in one operation. All parameters fitted are taking advantage of the noise cancellation techniques of the orthogonal projection of SSI. Other commercially available methods often fit the poles (frequency and damping) first, and then use the noisy spectral data and the estimated poles to fit the mode shapes resulting in poor mode shape estimates.
  • Automatic Mode Estimation. All SSI techniques includes automatic mode estimation that searches the stable modes in the SSI Stabilization Diagram. All stable modes of all estimated models of all test setups are included in the search, and the result is modal estimates of natural frequencies, damping ratios and modes shapes of high accuracy. The estimates are presented in terms of both mean values and standard deviations. Even in the case of closely spaced or repeated modes and multiple test setups, the automatic mode estimation for SSI works.
  • Estimation of Modal Uncertainties. Modal estimation methods that make use of Stabilization Diagrams only present, in general, the estimated mean values of the modal parameters. Typically, Stabilization Diagrams show the mean values of the natural frequencies of the estimated modes with respect to selected model dimensions. In a diagram like this, the search for stable modes is made on the basis of the mean values. Even if the stabilization is clear, it is still difficult to assess the level of confidence that can be associated with each of the presented modes. In the SSI-UPCX technique it is possible to visualize the uncertainty of the individual estimates in terms of confidence bounds around the mean values. These uncertainties are taken into account when estimating the global modes in SSI-UPCX.

 

Operational Modal Analysis 2